Punctuation – Introduction – Post 15


ATTENTION PLEASE: if you are not reading this article in English, I highly recommend that you turn off the automatic translation on your browser. 


Punctuation is a fundamental aspect of any language. The presence or the absence of a comma in a sentence could radically change its general meaning. Therefore, it is very important that you learn how to interpret and use punctuation in English.

Punctuation symbols:

“ . ” – Full stop or Full point – The “full stop” generally indicates the end of a sentence and it is also used to abbreviate nouns or expressions (for example: “adj.” = Adjective; “e.g.” = exempli gratia)

“ , ” – Comma – You should use the comma when listing nouns or adjectives, or when you want to emphasize a word or a clause by positioning them in a particular place within the sentence (for instance, at the beginning.).

“ ‘ ” – Apostrophe – The apostrophe is used in contractions (don’t, aren’t, shouldn’t, etc.), it is also used to express the “possessive case” (“My father’s car.”; “Carla’s best friend.”). It can also be used to express individual letters in the plural (Like in the following sentence: The word “appear” has two P’s.)

“ ? ” – Question mark – The question mark in English is normally associated with the subject-verb inversion, and it indicates that the sentence is in fact a question rather than a statement.

“ ! ” – Exclamation mark – The exclamation mark is used to express exclamations such as “wow!”, or “Oh, my goodness!”, etc. It is also used in imperative sentences like “Don’t do that!” or “Shut up!”.

“ : ” – Colon – You should use the colon to introduce a list, a summary, or an explanation.

“ ; ” – Semicolon – You can use the semicolon to separate independent clauses, or to separate the elements of a list when those elements also contains commas. When reading, the semicolon should be interpreted as a pause longer than a comma but shorter than a full stop.

“ – ” – Hyphen – The hyphen indicates that two words have been joined together in order to create a new word (for example: back-up; post-mortem; self-interest). The hyphen is also used to divide words at the end of a line when the whole word doesn’t fit on it.

“ – ” – En dash – (Alt + 0150) – The en dash is commonly used to express the span or range of numbers, dates, or time; and it is usually read as “to” (1982–87; 01:00a.m.–02:00a.m.) – Note: The en dash is longer than the hyphen.

“ — ” – Em dash – (Alt + 0151) – Em dashes can replace commas when emphasizing a particular clause which adds information in a sentence. They can also replace parentheses “( )”. In both cases a pair of em dashes are required. A single em dash is possible at the end of a sentence. For example: Clean air, fresh water, singing birds—it was a paradise.

Note: Em dashes are always more emphatic than commas, parentheses, or colons. Note: they are longer than en dashes.

“ ( ) ” – Parentheses – Parentheses are always used in pairs, and they usually enclose additional information.

“ “” ” / “ ‘’ ” – Quotation marks – You should use quotation marks when quoting somebody’s words, or sentences. – (‘ = Alt+0145; ’ = Alt+0146)

“ … ” – Ellipsis or Suspension points – Ellipsis indicates that part of the sentence is being omitted. They can also express hesitation, and in that case you can call them “suspension points”.


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Pronouns – Introduction – Complete List – Post 13


ATTENTION PLEASE: if you are not reading this article in English, I highly recommend that you turn off the automatic translation on your browser. 


The prefix “pro-” derives from Latin and signifies “in place of”. That means that pro-nouns are words which substitute nouns.

If pronouns didn’t exist, we would be forced to repeat nouns over and over again, resulting in a rather annoying communication.

There are different types of pronouns:

Personal pronouns:
Singular Subject Object
1st I Me
2nd You You
3rd He Him
3rd She Her
3rd It It
3rd One One
Plural
1st We Us
2nd You You
3rd They Them
Reflexive pronouns:
Singular
1st Myself
2nd Yourself
3rd Himself
3rd Herself
3rd Itself
3rd Oneself
Plural
1st Ourselves
2nd Yourselves
3rd Themselves
Reciprocal pronouns:

Each other

One another

Possessive pronouns:
Singular
1st Mine
2nd Yours
3rd His
3rd Hers
3rd Its (own)
3rd One’s (own)
Plural
1st Ours
2nd Yours
3rd Theirs
Demonstrative pronouns:
Singular Plural
This These
That Those
Indefinite pronouns:
Somebody Someone Something
Nobody No one Nothing
Anybody Anyone Anything
Everybody Everyone Everything
Relative pronouns:
Subject Object Possessive
Who Who(m) Whose
Which Which Whose
That That
Interrogative pronouns:

Who (Subject)

Whom (Object)

Whose (Object possessed by an unknown subject)

What (Subject)

Which (Subject)

When (Object)

This is a complete list of English pronouns, you don’t need to memorize them all out of context, they will become familiar to you through practice. Take that list as a reference. You can consult it whenever you want.


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Stative Verbs List – Post 12


ATTENTION PLEASE: if you are not reading this article in English, I highly recommend that you turn off the automatic translation on your browser. 


Stative verbs are verbs that you will not conjugate in the progressive tenses because they inherently express quiescence rather than movement.

Here is a rather complete list of common English Stative Verbs:

adore

agree

appear

appreciate

astonish

be

believe

belong

care for

concern

consist

contain

cost

deny

depend

deserve

desire

disagree

dislike

doubt

feel ( = have an opinion )

fit

forget

hate

have ( = possess )

hear

hope

hurt

imagine

impress

include

involve

itch

know

lack

like

look ( = seem )

love

matter

mean

measure ( = have length, etc. )

mind

need

owe

own

please

possess

prefer

promise

realize (= be/become aware)

recognize

remember

satisfy

see

seem

smell (To notice or recognize a particular smell)

sound 

Stand ( = bear “I can’t stand him.” dislike somebody/something)

suit 

suppose

surprise

taste

think ( = have an opinion )

understand

value

want

weigh ( = have weight )

wish

Note: Many of those verbs may be both stative or action verbs depending on the context.

This is a rather complete list of common English Stative Verbs, you don’t need to memorize all of them out of context, they will become familiar to you through practice. Take that list as a reference. You can consult it whenever you want.


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